Bank Reconciliation: What is it?

what is a bank reconciliation?

Ready to learn what is a bank reconciliation? Read on.

A bank reconciliation is a process that compares the bank statement with the company’s accounting records to ensure that they match.

This reconciliation is necessary because the two sets of records often differ due to the timing of transactions, errors, or other factors.

The main goal of bank reconciliation is to identify and explain any discrepancies between the bank statement and the company’s books.

Bank Reconciliation Statement

A bank reconciliation statement is a document that lists all of the transactions in your account and compares them to the transactions recorded by your bank.

This process helps you ensure that all of your deposits and withdrawals have been correctly accounted for, and can help you catch any errors or discrepancies in your account.

Bank reconciliation statements typically include information such as the date of each transaction, the amount involved, and the type of transaction (deposit, withdrawal, transfer, etc.).

By comparing this information to your own records, you can verify that your account balance is accurate and up-to-date.


Bank reconciliation examples are common transactions that occur in a bank account and serve as a basis for reconciling the account with the bank’s records.

Some examples of transactions that may be included in a bank reconciliation statement include deposits from paychecks or other sources, withdrawals for expenses such as groceries or rent, transfers to other accounts, and payments made online or by check.

By comparing these transactions to the bank’s records, you can ensure that your account is accurately reflecting all of the money coming in and going out.

Additionally, bank reconciliation examples can help you identify patterns in your spending habits and make more informed financial decisions.

Bank Reconciliation Tempate

A bank reconciliation template is a pre-formatted document that helps guide you through the process of reconciling your account with the bank’s records.

This type of template typically includes fields for information such as the date, description, and amount of each transaction, as well as categories for classifying the transaction (e.g., deposit, withdrawal, transfer).

By using a bank reconciliation template, you can ensure that all of the necessary information is collected and organized in a consistent way.

This can make the process of reconciling your account more efficient and less prone to errors.

Additionally, many bank reconciliation templates are available online or through accounting software, which can save time and streamline the process even further.

Journal Entries

Bank reconciliation journal entries align a company’s internal records with bank statements, rectifying discrepancies like timing differences or outstanding checks.

These entries ensure accurate financial reporting by adjusting the cash account to match the actual cash position. This process maintains financial integrity and facilitates informed decision-making.

How to make a bank reconciliation?

Bank reconciliation is a crucial process in accounting that ensures the accuracy and reliability of financial records.

Knowing how to make a bank reconciliation is fundamental for businesses to maintain financial integrity and detect discrepancies between their records and the bank statement.

What is a bank reconciliation accountant?

A bank reconciliation accountant plays a role in ensuring the accuracy and integrity of financial records within a company.

This professional is primarily responsible for reconciling the financial transactions recorded in the company’s books with the corresponding entries in the bank statements.

The reconciliation process involves comparing and adjusting any discrepancies to ensure that the company’s financial records align with the bank’s records.

Bank reconciliation formulas

To conduct a thorough reconciliation, various bank reconciliation formulas come into play.

Firstly, the adjusted bank balance is calculated by taking the beginning bank balance, adding the deposits in transit, and subtracting outstanding checks.

This formula helps account for transactions that haven’t cleared the bank yet.

Next, the adjusted book balance is determined by starting with the beginning book balance, adding any interest earned and deposits that the bank hasn’t recorded, and subtracting any bank fees or withdrawals not yet reflected in the statement.

To reconcile the two balances, the adjusted book balance is compared to the adjusted bank balance.

Any discrepancies may arise from errors in recording, unprocessed transactions, or bank fees not accounted for.

Utilizing these formulas ensures a thorough examination of financial transactions, promoting accuracy and transparency in the accounting process.

Outstanding Check

During the process of reconciling your bank account, it is important to identify any outstanding checks.

Outstanding checks are transactions that have been authorized by you but not yet cashed.

These checks can impact your account balance and should be resolved as soon as possible.

There are a few ways to handle outstanding checks.

If the check has not yet been delivered to the payee, you may want to contact them to inform them of the delay or request that they cancel the check.

If the check has already been delivered, you will need to wait for it to be cashed.

It is also a good idea to review your bank statements regularly to keep track of any outstanding checks and ensure that your account is properly reconciled.

This can help you identify and resolve any issues quickly and prevent any potential financial problems in the future.

Deposit in Transit

Deposit in transit, in terms of bank reconciliation, refers to funds recorded by a company but not yet processed by the bank.

This occurs when deposits are made near a reporting deadline.

Though internal records reflect the deposit, it may not appear in the bank statement immediately.

Reconciling deposit in transit is vital for accurate financial reporting, ensuring transparency in business accounting.

NSF check

NSF check bank reconciliation refers to the process of reconciling a bank account when a check written by an account holder is returned unpaid due to insufficient funds in the account.

During the NSF check bank reconciliation, the account holder reviews their bank statement, identifies the NSF checks, and adjusts their accounting records accordingly.

This involves subtracting the amount of the bounced check from the account balance and making the necessary corrections to the check register.

Additionally, any applicable bank fees related to the NSF transaction are also taken into account.


A bank reconciliation discrepancy occurs when there is a difference between the transactions listed on the bank statement and those recorded in other records.

There are several reasons why discrepancies may occur.

For example, transactions may be missed from the bank statement if they were not properly recorded or if they occurred during a period of time when no statements were received.

Other possible causes include errors in recording transactions or differences in naming conventions between banks and financial institutions.

Purpose of Bank Reconciliation

The purpose of bank reconciliation is to ensure the accuracy and completeness of financial records by comparing transactions listed on a company’s internal records with those recorded by the bank.

By regularly reconciling bank accounts, businesses can improve their financial management, enhance control over their finances, and reduce the risk of financial irregularities.


Bank Reconciliation process helps to identify any discrepancies or errors in financial record-keeping, such as missed deposits or payments, duplicate entries or fraudulent activity, and allows companies to make adjustments to their records accordingly.

Steps – Comparing Transactions

Bank Reconciliation StepDescription
Matching TransactionsMatching the transactions on the bank statement with the transactions recorded in the company’s accounting records.
Adjusting for Timing DifferencesRecognizing transactions that appear on one side but not the other due to timing differences, such as outstanding checks or deposits that haven’t cleared.
Identifying ErrorsInvestigating any discrepancies or errors in recording transactions in the company’s books or on the bank statement.
Updating RecordsMaking adjustments in the company’s books to reflect the correct balances and ensure they align with the bank statement.


To perform a successful reconciliation, you will need to follow certain bank reconciliation rules and procedures, such as collecting all relevant documentation, reviewing the transactions in both accounts, and identifying any discrepancies or errors.

Additionally, it is important to maintain accurate and organized financial records throughout the year, so that you can easily identify and resolve any issues that may arise during the reconciliation process.

Done Monthly

The reconciliation, is typically performed regularly, such as monthly, to ensure the accuracy of the financial records.

It helps in detecting errors, fraud, or unauthorized transactions.

A properly reconciled bank statement is crucial for preparing accurate financial statements and ensures that the company’s cash position is correctly represented in its accounting records.

Bank Reconciliation Problems

Often there are bank reconciliation problems that need to be solved.

However, there are ways you can do to about them.

Using Excel

Bank reconciliation Excel is a process of matching the cash balance on a company’s balance sheet with the corresponding amount on its bank statement using Excel spreadsheets.

It is a critical task for every finance and accounting department in a company, and it helps to ensure that all cash records are correct and detect any fraud or cash manipulations.

To perform bank reconciliation in Excel, one needs to create a template that includes all the fields in the rows and columns that correlate with the fields on the bank statement.

The template should also have tabs for the control account, money in, and money out.

The bank reconciliation process involves comparing the bank statement and cash book closing balances, identifying mismatches, computing the adjusted bank statement balance, and preparing a report.

Why not balanced?

Click here to learn what causes bank reconciliation not to balanced.


There are two sections in a bank reconciliation:

  • Bank Section: the bank section includes all reconciling items in the bank. Those are added or subtracted from the bank balance. Examples are deposits in transit, outstanding checks and bank errors.
  • Book Section: the book section includes all reconciling items in the book. Those are added or subtracted from the book balance. Examples are unrecorded deposits and disbursements, bank charges and errors in recording.

Importance – Internal Control

Bank reconciliation is a crucial process in accounting that involves comparing a company’s internal financial records with the records provided by the bank to ensure that the recorded balance of the business matches the recorded balance of the bank.

The importance of bank reconciliation lies in its ability to:

  • Identify errors and fraud.
  • Manage cash flow.
  • Prevent fraud.
  • Ensure completeness
  • Maintain accurate financial records
  • Detect discrepancies

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